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Table of Contents

UNITED STATES

SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549

FORM 20-F

(Mark One)

     REGISTRATION STATEMENT PURSUANT TO SECTION 12(b) OR (g) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934

OR

      ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2021.

OR

     TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For the transition period from __________ to __________.

OR

      SHELL COMPANY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
Date of event requiring this shell company report

Commission file number: 001-35224

Xunlei Limited

(Exact name of Registrant as specified in its charter)

N/A

(Translation of Registrant’s name into English)

Cayman Islands

(Jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)

21-23/F, Block B, Building No. 12

No.18 Shenzhen Bay ECO-Technology Park, Keji South Road, Yuehai Street

Nanshan District, Shenzhen, 518057

The People’s Republic of China

(Address of principal executive offices)

Naijiang (Eric) Zhou, Chief Financial Officer

Telephone: +86-755-8633-8443

Email: zhounaijiang@xunlei.com

21-23/F, Block B, Building No. 12

No.18 Shenzhen Bay ECO-Technology Park, Keji South Road, Yuehai Street

Nanshan District, Shenzhen, 518057

The People’s Republic of China

(Name, Telephone, Email and/or Facsimile number and Address of Company Contact Person)

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act.

Title of each class

    

Name of each exchange on which registered

    

Ticker symbol

American depositary shares,

each representing five common shares

The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC

(The NASDAQ Global Select Market)

XNET

Common shares, par value US$0.00025 per share*

The NASDAQ Stock Market LLC

(The NASDAQ Global Select Market)

*      Not for trading, but only in connection with the listing on The NASDAQ Global Select Market of American depositary shares.

Securities registered or to be registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act.

NONE

(Title of Class)

Securities for which there is a reporting obligation pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Act.

NONE

(Title of Class)

Table of Contents

Indicate the number of outstanding shares of each of the issuer’s classes of capital or common stock as of the close of the period covered by the annual report: 337,257,946 common shares (excluding (i) 20,729,830 common shares that are (a) issued to our depositary bank for the purpose of bulk issuance, (b) repurchased by the company, and (ii) 10,889,429 common shares and 274,057 American depositary shares held by Leading Advice Holdings Limited, a share incentive awards holding platform) as of December 31, 2021.

Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.

Yes No

If this report is an annual or transition report, indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.

Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.

Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).

Yes No

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or an emerging growth company. See definition of “accelerated filer,” “large accelerated filer,” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.

Large accelerated filer 

Accelerated filer 

Non-accelerated filer 

Emerging growth company

If an emerging growth company that prepares its financial statements in accordance with U.S. GAAP, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards† provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Securities Act.

Yes No

†   The term “new or revised financial accounting standard” refers to any update issued by the Financial Accounting Standards Board to its Accounting Standards Codification after April 5, 2012.

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report.

Indicate by check mark which basis of accounting the registrant has used to prepare the financial statements included in this filing:

US GAAP

International Financial Reporting Standards as issued by the International

Accounting Standards Board

Other

If “Other” has been checked in response to the previous question, indicate by check mark which financial statement item the registrant has elected to follow.

Item 17 Item 18

If this is an annual report, indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).

Yes No

(APPLICABLE ONLY TO ISSUERS INVOLVED IN BANKRUPTCY PROCEEDINGS DURING THE PAST FIVE YEARS)

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed all documents and reports required to be filed by Sections 12, 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 subsequent to the distribution of securities under a plan confirmed by a court.

Yes No

Table of Contents

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

INTRODUCTION

1

FORWARD-LOOKING INFORMATION

2

PART I

3

Item 1.

Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisers

3

Item 2.

Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable

3

Item 3.

Key Information

3

Item 4.

Information on the Company

73

Item 4A.

Unresolved Staff Comments

116

Item 5.

Operating and Financial Review and Prospects

117

Item 6.

Directors, Senior Management and Employees

140

Item 7.

Major Shareholders and Related Party Transactions

147

Item 8.

Financial Information

151

Item 9.

The Offer and Listing

152

Item 10.

Additional Information

153

Item 11.

Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk

159

Item 12.

Description of Securities Other than Equity Securities

160

PART II

161

Item 13.

Defaults, Dividend Arrearages and Delinquencies

161

Item 14.

Material Modifications to the Rights of Security Holders and Use of Proceeds

162

Item 15.

Controls and Procedures

162

Item 16A.

Audit Committee Financial Expert

163

Item 16B.

Code of Ethics

163

Item 16C.

Principal Accountant Fees and Services

164

Item 16D.

Exemptions from the Listing Standards for Audit Committees

164

Item 16E.

Purchases of Equity Securities by the Issuer and Affiliated Purchasers

164

Item 16F.

Change in Registrant’s Certifying Accountant

164

Item 16G.

Corporate Governance

164

Item 16H.

Mine Safety Disclosure

165

PART III

165

Item 17.

Financial Statements

165

Item 18.

Financial Statements

165

Item 19.

Exhibits

166

SIGNATURES

170

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INTRODUCTION

In this annual report, except where the context otherwise requires and for purposes of this annual report only:

·

“we,” “us,” “our company,” “our,” or “Xunlei” refers to Xunlei Limited, a Cayman Islands company, its subsidiaries, its variable interest entity, or VIE, and the VIE’s subsidiaries;

·

“China” or “PRC” refers to the People’s Republic of China, excluding, for the purpose of this annual report only, Hong Kong, Macau and Taiwan;

·

“daily active user”, refers to a user who accessed to Mobile Xunlei through a mobile device, on a given day;

·

“digital media content” refers to videos, music, games, software and documents transmitted in digital form;

·

“monthly unique visitors,” in relation to our platform, refers to the number of different individual visitors who accessed Xunlei products (including websites and software) on our platform from the same computer at least once within a month; under this method, a user who accessed Xunlei products from two different computers would count as two unique visitors;

·

“shares” or “common shares” refers to our common shares, par value US$0.00025 per share;

·

“subscriber,” refers to users who can access our premium acceleration services, including accounts temporarily suspended, but excluding sub-accounts and accounts on a trial basis.

·

“ADSs” refers to our American depositary shares, each representing five common shares, and “ADRs” refers to any American depositary receipts that evidence our ADSs;

·

“RMB” or “Renminbi” refers to the legal currency of China; and

·

“US$,” “dollars” or “U.S. dollars” refers to the legal currency of the United States.

We use U.S. dollar as reporting currency in our financial statements and in this annual report. Transactions in Renminbi are recorded at the rates of exchange prevailing when the transactions occur. Solely for the convenience of the reader, the translations of Renminbi amounts into U.S. dollars contained in this annual report were made at RMB6.3757 to US$1.00, the rate released by the State Administration of Foreign Exchange of the People’s Republic of China on December 31, 2021. We make no representation that any Renminbi or U.S. dollar amounts could have been, or could be, converted into U.S. dollars or Renminbi, as the case may be, at any particular rate, the rates stated below, or at all. The PRC government imposes control over its foreign currency reserves in part through direct regulation of the conversion of Renminbi into foreign exchange and through restrictions on foreign trade.

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FORWARD-LOOKING INFORMATION

This annual report on Form 20-F contains forward-looking statements that reflect our current expectations and views of future events. These statements are made under the “safe harbor” provisions of the U.S. Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. You can identify these forward-looking statements by words or phrases such as “may,” “could,” “should,” “would,” “will,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “aim,” “estimate,” “intend,” “plan,” “believe,” “likely to,” “project,” “continue,” “potential,” or other similar expressions. We have based these forward-looking statements largely on our current expectations and projections about future events and financial trends that we believe may affect our financial condition, results of operations, business strategy and financial needs. These forward-looking statements include, but are not limited to, statements about:

·

our business strategies, including the strategies to streamline our business and continue moving toward mobile internet;

·

our future business development, results of operations and financial condition;

·

our ability to maintain and strengthen our market position in China;

·

our ability to retain subscribers for our premium acceleration and other services;

·

our ability to develop new products and services and attract, maintain and monetize user traffic;

·

trends and competition in the internet industry in China;

·

rules and regulations governing the internet industry in China;

·

our ability to handle intellectual property rights-related matters; and

·

general economic and business conditions in China.

You should not place undue reliance on these forward-looking statements and you should read these statements in conjunction with other sections of this annual report, in particular the risk factors disclosed in “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors.” These statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from those expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. Moreover, we operate in a rapidly evolving environment. New risks emerge from time to time and it is impossible for our management to predict all risk factors, nor can we assess the impact of all factors on our business or the extent to which any factor, or combination of factors, may cause actual results to differ from those contained in any forward-looking statement. The forward-looking statements made in this annual report relate only to events or information as of the date on which the statements are made in this annual report. We do not undertake any obligation to update or revise the forward-looking statements except as required under applicable law.

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PART I

Item 1.  Identity of Directors, Senior Management and Advisers

Not applicable.

Item 2.  Offer Statistics and Expected Timetable

Not applicable.

Item 3.  Key Information

Our Holding Company Structure and Contractual Arrangements with the Variable Interest Entity

Xunlei Limited is not a Chinese operating company but a Cayman Islands holding company with no equity ownership in its variable interest entity. We conduct our operations in China through (i) our PRC subsidiaries, and (ii) the variable interest entity, with which we have maintained contractual arrangements and its subsidiaries in China. PRC laws and regulations place certain restrictions on foreign ownership of companies that engage in value-added telecommunication service, and prohibit foreign investment in internet cultural operating service and online transmission of audio-visual programs service. Accordingly, we operate these businesses in China through the variable interest entity, and rely on contractual arrangements among our PRC subsidiaries, the variable interest entity and its shareholders to control the business operations of the variable interest entity. Revenues contributed by the variable interest entity accounted for 99.99%, 99.99% and 95.47% of our total revenues for the years of 2019, 2020 and 2021, respectively. As used in this annual report, “we,” “us,” “our company” and “our” refers to Xunlei Limited, its subsidiaries, and, in the context of describing our operations and consolidated financial information, the variable interest entity in China, Shenzhen Xunlei Networking Technologies Co., Ltd., or Shenzhen Xunlei, which was established in January 2003 to operate our Xunlei internet platform together with its various subsidiaries in the PRC. Investors in our ADSs are not purchasing equity interest in the variable interest entity in China but instead are purchasing equity interest in a holding company incorporated in the Cayman Islands.

A series of contractual agreements, including business operation agreement, equity pledge agreement, powers of attorney, exclusive technology support and services agreement, exclusive technology consulting and training agreement, proprietary technology license contract, intellectual properties purchase option agreement, equity interests disposal agreement, and loan agreements, have been entered into by and among our subsidiary, the variable interest entity and its respective shareholders. Terms contained in each set of contractual arrangements with the variable interest entity and its respective shareholders are substantially similar. As a result of the contractual arrangements, we have effective control over and are considered the primary beneficiary of the variable interest entity, and we have consolidated the financial results of the variable interest entity and its subsidiaries in our consolidated financial statements. For more details of these contractual arrangements, see “Item 4. Information on the Company—C. Organizational Structure—Agreements that provide us effective control over Shenzhen Xunlei.”

However, the contractual arrangements may not be as effective as ownership in providing us with control over the variable interest entity and we may incur substantial costs to enforce the terms of the arrangements. In addition, these agreements have not been tested in China courts. See “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure—We rely on contractual arrangements with the variable interest entity in China and its shareholders for our operations, which may not be as effective as ownership in providing operational control the variable interest entity and its subsidiaries” and “—The shareholders of Shenzhen Xunlei may have potential conflicts of interest with us, which may materially and adversely affect our business.”

There are also substantial uncertainties regarding the interpretation and application of current and future PRC laws, regulations and rules regarding the status of the rights of our PRC subsidiaries with respect to its contractual arrangements with the variable interest entity and its shareholders. It is uncertain whether any new PRC laws or regulations relating to variable interest entity structures will be adopted or if adopted, what they would provide. If our PRC subsidiaries or any of the variable interest entity is found to be in violation of any existing or future PRC laws or regulations, or fail to

3

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obtain or maintain any of the required permits or approvals, the relevant PRC regulatory authorities would have broad discretion to take action in dealing with such violations or failures. See “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure—If the PRC government finds that the agreements that establish the structure for operating our businesses in China do not comply with PRC governmental restrictions on foreign investment in internet-related business and foreign investors’ mergers and acquisition activities in China, or if these regulations or the interpretation of existing regulations change in the future, we could be subject to severe penalties or be forced to relinquish our interests in those operations” and “—Uncertainties exist with respect to the interpretation and implementation of the enacted PRC Foreign Investment Law and how it may impact the viability of our current corporate structure, corporate governance and business operations.”

Our corporate structure is subject to risks associated with our contractual arrangements with the variable interest entity. If the PRC government deems that our contractual arrangements with the variable interest entity do not comply with PRC regulatory restrictions on foreign investment in the relevant industries, or if these regulations or the interpretation of existing regulations change or are interpreted differently in the future, we could be subject to severe penalties or be forced to relinquish our interests in those operations. Our holding company, our PRC subsidiaries and variable interest entity, and investors of our company face uncertainty about potential future actions by the PRC government that could affect the enforceability of the contractual arrangements with the variable interest entity and, consequently, significantly affect the financial performance of the variable interest entity and our company as a whole. For a detailed description of the risks associated with our corporate structure, please refer to risks disclosed under “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure.”

We face various risks and uncertainties related to doing business in China. Our business operations are primarily conducted in China, and we are subject to complex and evolving PRC laws and regulations. For example, we face risks associated with regulatory approvals on our future offshore offerings (if any), anti-monopoly regulatory actions, and oversight on cybersecurity and data privacy, as well as the lack of inspection by the Public Company Accounting Oversight Board, or the PCAOB, on our auditors, which may impact our ability to conduct certain businesses, accept foreign investments, or list on a United States or other foreign exchange. These risks could result in a material adverse change in our operations and the value of our ADSs, significantly limit or completely hinder our ability to continue to offer securities to investors, or cause the value of such securities to significantly decline or be of little or no value. For a detailed description of risks related to doing business in China, please refer to risks disclosed under “Item 3.D. Key Information—Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China.”

PRC government’s significant authority in regulating our operations and its oversight and control over offerings conducted overseas by, and foreign investment in, China-based issuers could significantly limit or completely hinder our ability to offer or continue to offer securities to investors. Implementation of industry-wide regulations, including data security or anti-monopoly related regulations, in this nature may cause the value of such securities to significantly decline or be of little or no value. For more details, see “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—The PRC government’s significant oversight and discretion over our business operation could result in a material adverse change in our operations and the value of our ADSs.”

Risks and uncertainties arising from the legal system in China, including risks and uncertainties regarding the enforcement of laws and quickly evolving rules and regulations in China, could result in a material adverse change in our operations and the value of our ADSs. For more details, see “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—Uncertainties with respect to the PRC legal system could adversely affect us.”

The Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act

The Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act, or the HFCA Act, was enacted on December 18, 2020. The HFCA Act states that if the SEC determines that we have filed audit reports issued by a registered public accounting firm that has not been subject to inspection by the PCAOB for three consecutive years beginning in 2021, the SEC shall prohibit our shares or ADSs from being traded on a national securities exchange. Since our auditor is located in China, a jurisdiction where the PCAOB has been unable to conduct inspections without the approval of the Chinese authorities, our auditor is not currently inspected by the PCAOB, which may impact our ability to remain listed on a United States or other foreign exchange. The related risks and uncertainties could cause the value of our ADSs to significantly decline. For more details,

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see “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—The PCAOB is currently unable to inspect our auditor in relation to their audit work performed for our financial statements and the inability of the PCAOB to conduct inspections over our auditor deprives our investors with the benefits of such inspections” and “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—Our ADSs will be prohibited from trading in the United States under the Holding Foreign Companies Accountable Act, or the HFCAA, in 2024 if the PCAOB is unable to inspect or fully investigate auditors located in China, or in 2023 if proposed changes to the law are enacted. The delisting of our ADSs, or the threat of their being delisted, may materially and adversely affect the value of your investment.”

Permissions Required from the PRC Authorities for Our Operations

We conduct our business primarily through our subsidiaries, variable interest entity and its subsidiaries in China. Our operations in China are governed by PRC laws and regulations. As of the date of this annual report, our PRC subsidiaries, variable interest entity and its subsidiaries have obtained the requisite licenses and permits from the PRC government authorities that are material for the business operations of our holding company, our PRC subsidiaries, the variable interest entity and its subsidiaries in China, including, among others, the value-added telecommunication services license, or VATS License and Online Culture Operation Permit. However, given the uncertainties of interpretation and implementation of relevant laws and regulations and the enforcement practices of relevant government authorities, we cannot assure you that we have obtained or will obtain all permits or licenses required for conducting our business in China. For example, neither Shenzhen Wangwenhua, an entity that operates a live streaming business, nor Shenzhen Xunlei, an entity that provides video content display services, is a registered owner of the license for online transmission of audio-visual programs. As a result, it is possible that relevant PRC government authorities could determine that these businesses are operating without sufficient licenses. In addition, we are in the process of application for the registration in the National Internet Audio-Visual Platforms Information Management System under the requirement of Notice 78 (defined below) for operating a live streaming business and providing video content display services. We may be required to obtain additional licenses, permits, filings or approvals for the functions and services of our platform in the future. For more detailed information, see “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors— Risks related to our business—We are strictly regulated in China. Any lack of requisite licenses or permits applicable to our businesses or to our third-party services providers and any changes in government policies or regulations may have a material and adverse impact on our businesses, financial condition and results of operations.”

In addition, our online game operating subsidiaries, Shenzhen Wangwenhua, Shenzhen Xunlei and Xunlei Games, have obtained a VATS License for operating our online games; and Shenzhen Xunlei, holding 100% of the equity interest in Shenzhen Wangwenhua and 70% of the equity interest in Xunlei Games, has obtained an Internet Publishing Services License for the publication of internet games, with an expiry date of September 17, 2022. However, neither Shenzhen Wangwenhua nor Xunlei Games has obtained an Internet Publishing Services License. Given the uncertainties of interpretation and implementation of relevant laws and regulations and the enforcement practices of relevant government authorities, we cannot assure you that Shenzhen Wangwenhua and Xunlei Games are not required to obtain Internet Publishing Services Licenses as well. As a result, relevant PRC government authorities may find that certain of our online game operating subsidiaries are engaged in internet publishing services without having the proper license and may penalize us accordingly. In such event, Shenzhen Wangwenhua and Xunlei Games could be ordered to cease the operations of such game publishing services, including to the extent of discontinuing our online games business operated by them, and could be subject to confiscation of illegal income and major equipment, or to fines. For more detailed information, see “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors— Risks related to our business—We may not be able to successfully address the challenges and risks we face in the online games market, such as a failure to operate popular, high-quality games or to obtain all the licenses required to operate online games, which may subject us to penalties from the relevant authorities, including the discontinuance of our online game business.”

Furthermore, in connection with our previous issuance of securities to foreign investors, under current PRC laws, regulations and regulatory rules, as of the date of this annual report, we, our PRC subsidiaries and the variable interest entity, (i) are not required to obtain permissions from the China Securities Regulatory Commission, or the CSRC, (ii) are not required to go through cybersecurity review by the Cyberspace Administration of China, or the CAC, and (iii) have not received or were denied such requisite permissions by any PRC authority.

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However, the PRC government has recently indicated an intent to exert more oversight and control over offerings that are conducted overseas and/or foreign investment in China-based issuers. For more detailed information, see “Item 3. Key Information—D. Risk Factors—Risks Related to Doing Business in China—The approval of the CSRC or other PRC government authorities may be required in connection with our future offshore offerings (if any) under PRC law, and, if required, we cannot predict whether or for how long we will be able to obtain such approval.”

Cash and Asset Flows through Our Organization

Under PRC laws, Xunlei Limited may provide funding to our PRC subsidiaries only through capital contributions or loans, and to our PRC consolidated variable interest entity only through loans, subject to satisfaction of applicable registration and approval requirements from the PRC government. For the year ended December 31, 2019, Xunlei Limited, through its intermediate holding companies, provided capital contribution of US$100.0 million to its subsidiaries in China, and extended a loan of US$20.0 million directly to its consolidated variable interest entity in China. Subsequently, there was no additional capital contribution or loan from Xunlei Limited to its subsidiaries or the VIE and the VIE’s subsidiaries in China. For the year ended December 31, 2019, 2020, and 2021, our consolidated variable interest entity received debt financing of US$11.4 million, US$2.5 million and US$23.5 million from our WFOE, respectively.

Xunlei Limited is a holding company with no material operations of its own. We conduct our operations primarily through our PRC subsidiaries, the variable interest entity and its subsidiaries in China. As a result, Xunlei Limited’s ability to pay dividends depends upon dividends paid by our PRC subsidiaries. If our existing PRC subsidiaries or any newly formed ones incur debt on their own behalf in the future, the instruments governing their debt may restrict their ability to pay dividends to us. In addition, our wholly foreign-owned subsidiaries in China are permitted to pay dividends to us only out of its retained earnings, if any, as determined in accordance with PRC accounting standards and regulations. Under PRC law, each of our subsidiaries and the variable interest entity in China is required to make appropriations to certain statutory reserve funds or may make appropriations to certain discretionary funds, which are not distributable as cash dividends except in the event of a solvent liquidation of the companies. For more details, see “Item 5. Operating and Financial Review and Prospects—Liquidity and Capital Resources.” and “Item 3. Key Information—Risk Factors—Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure—We may rely principally on dividends and other distributions on equity paid by our PRC subsidiaries to fund any cash and financing requirements we may have. Any limitation on the ability of Giganology Shenzhen and Xunlei Computer to pay dividends to us could have a material adverse effect on our ability to conduct our business.”

Under PRC laws and regulations, our PRC subsidiaries and consolidated variable interest entity are subject to certain restrictions with respect to paying dividends or otherwise transferring any of their net assets to us. Remittance of dividends by a wholly foreign-owned enterprise out of China is also subject to examination by the banks designated by SAFE. The amounts restricted include the paid-up capital and the statutory reserve funds of our PRC subsidiaries and the net assets of our consolidated variable interest entity in which we have no legal ownership, totaling US$245.9 million, US$168.5 million and US$169.2 million as of December 31, 2019, 2020 and 2021, respectively. For details, see “Item 3. Key Information—Risk Factors— Risks Related to Our Corporate Structure—PRC regulation of loans to, and direct investment in, PRC entities by offshore holding companies and governmental control of currency conversion may restrict or prevent us from making loans to our PRC subsidiaries and variable interest entity and its subsidiaries or making additional capital contributions to our PRC subsidiaries, which may materially and adversely affect our liquidity and our ability to fund and expand our business.”

In the year ended December 31, 2019, 2020, and 2021, no assets other than cash were transferred through our organization.

Xunlei Limited has not declared or paid any cash dividends, nor does it have any present plan to pay any cash dividends on its ordinary shares in the foreseeable future. We currently intend to retain most, if not all, of our available funds and any future earnings to fund the development and growth of our business. See “Item 8. Financial Information—A. Consolidated Statements and Other Financial Information—Dividend Policy.” For the material Cayman Islands, PRC and U.S. federal income tax consequences of an investment in our ADSs or ordinary shares, see “Item 10. Additional Information—E. Taxation.”

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The following discussion reflects the hypothetical taxes that might be required to be paid within mainland China, assuming that: (i) we have taxable earnings, and (ii) we determine to pay a dividend in the future:

Tax

    

calculation(1)

Hypothetical pre-tax earnings(2)

 

100%

Tax on earnings at statutory rate of 25%(3)

  

(25)%

Net earnings available for distribution

 

75%

Withholding tax at standard rate of 10%(4)

  

(7.5)%

Net distribution to Parent/Shareholders

 

67.5%

Notes:

(1)For purposes of this example, the tax calculation has been simplified. The hypothetical book pre-tax earnings amount, not considering timing differences, is assumed to equal taxable income in China.
(2)Under the terms of VIE agreements, our PRC subsidiaries may charge the VIEs for services provided to VIEs. These service fees shall be recognized as expenses of the VIEs, with a corresponding amount as service income by our PRC subsidiaries and eliminate in consolidation. For income tax purposes, our PRC subsidiaries and VIEs file income tax returns on a separate company basis. The service fees paid are recognized as a tax deduction by the VIEs and as income by our PRC subsidiaries and are tax neutral.
(3)Certain of our subsidiaries and VIEs qualifies for a 15% preferential income tax rate in China. However, such rate is subject to qualification, is temporary in nature, and may not be available in a future period when distributions are paid. For purposes of this hypothetical example, the table above reflects a maximum tax scenario under which the full statutory rate would be effective.
(4)The PRC Enterprise Income Tax Law imposes a withholding income tax of 10% on dividends distributed by a foreign invested enterprise, or FIE, to its immediate holding company outside of China. A lower withholding income tax rate of 5% is applied if the VIE’s immediate holding company is registered in Hong Kong or other jurisdictions that have a tax treaty arrangement with China, subject to a qualification review at the time of the distribution. For purposes of this hypothetical example, the table above assumes a maximum tax scenario under which the full withholding tax would be applied.

The table above is based on the assumption that all profits of the VIEs will be distributed as fees to our PRC subsidiaries under tax neutral contractual arrangements. If, in the future, the accumulated earnings of the VIEs exceed the service fees paid to our PRC subsidiaries (or if the current and contemplated fee structure between the intercompany entities is determined to be non-substantive and disallowed by Chinese tax authorities), the VIEs could make a non-deductible transfer to our PRC subsidiaries for the amounts of the stranded cash in the VIEs. This would result in the double taxation of earnings: once at the VIE level (non-deductible expense) and again at the WFOE level (for presumptive earnings on the transfer). This has the impact of reducing the amount available above from 67.5% to approximately 50.6% of pre-tax income, respectively. We believe this scenario to be remote.

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Financial Information Related to Our Consolidated Variable Interest Entity

The following table presents the condensed consolidating schedule of financial information of Xunlei Limited (or the Parent), the WFOE (which is the primary beneficiary of the VIE), our other subsidiaries (excluding the WFOE), and the VIE and VIE’s subsidiaries, for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2020 and 2021 and as of the dates presented.

Selected Consdensed Consolidated Statements of Operations Data

Year ended December 31, 2021

Xunlei

    

Other

    

    

VIE and VIE's

    

    

Consolidated

    

Limited

subsidiaries

WFOE

subsidiaries

Elimination

Group

Inter-company revenues (1) (5)

 

 

7,153

 

879

 

 

(8,032)

 

Third-party revenues

 

 

10,865

 

 

228,736

 

 

239,601

Third-party costs of revenues

 

 

(8,881)

 

 

(109,722)

 

 

(118,603)

Inter-company operating expenses (1) (5)

 

 

 

 

(8,032)

 

8,032

 

Third-party operating expenses

 

(3,302)

 

(10,281)

 

(552)

 

(110,367)

 

 

(124,502)

Profit from subsidiaries and consolidated VIE (2)

 

3,935

 

 

2,913

 

 

(6,848)

 

Net income attributable to Xunlei Limited

 

1,191

 

876

 

3,059

 

2,913

 

(6,848)

 

1,191

Year ended December 31, 2020

    

Xunlei

    

Other

    

    

VIE and VIE's

    

    

Consolidated

Limited

subsidiaries

WFOE

subsidiaries

Elimination

Group

Inter-company revenues (1) (5)

 

 

6,355

 

822

 

 

(7,177)

 

Third-party revenues

 

 

4

 

 

186,679

 

 

186,683

Third-party costs of revenues

 

 

(244)

 

(5)

 

(92,388)

 

 

(92,637)

Inter-company operating expenses (1) (5)

 

 

 

 

(7,177)

 

7,177

 

Third-party operating expenses

 

(1,438)

 

(9,235)

 

(433)

 

(101,421)

 

 

(112,527)

Loss from subsidiaries and consolidated VIE (2)

 

(14,361)

 

 

(10,673)

 

 

25,034

 

Net loss attributable to Xunlei Limited

 

(13,840)

 

(3,757)

 

(10,604)

 

(10,673)

 

25,034

 

(13,840)

Year ended December 31, 2019

    

Xunlei

    

Other

    

    

VIE and VIE's

    

    

Consolidated

Limited

subsidiaries

WFOE

subsidiaries

Elimination

Group

Inter-company revenues (1) (5)

 

 

6,482

 

820

 

 

(7,302)

 

Third-party revenues

 

 

3,197

 

 

178,070

 

 

181,267

Third-party costs of revenues

 

 

(190)

 

(5)

 

(99,718)

 

 

(99,913)

Inter-company operating expenses (1) (5)

 

 

 

 

(7,302)

 

7,302

 

Third-party operating expenses

 

(1,248)

 

(17,822)

 

(390)

 

(117,714)

 

 

(137,174)

Loss from subsidiaries and consolidated VIE (2)

 

(57,787)

 

 

(56,328)

 

 

114,115

 

Net loss attributable to Xunlei Limited

 

(53,169)

 

(1,415)

 

(56,372)

 

(56,328)

 

114,115

 

(53,169)

8

Table of Contents

Selected Condensed Consolidated Balance Sheet Data

As of December 31, 2021

    

Xunlei

    

Other

    

    

VIE and VIE's

    

    

Consolidated

Limited

subsidiaries

WFOE

subsidiaries

Elimination

Group

USD'000

USD'000

USD'000

USD'000

USD'000

USD'000

Cash and cash equivalents

 

32,015

 

54,802

 

19,896

 

16,645

 

 

123,358

Short-term investments

 

40,972

 

68,307

 

 

6,373

 

 

115,652

Accounts receivable, net

 

 

132

 

 

26,003

 

 

26,135

Inventories

 

 

 

 

1,363

 

 

1,363

Amount due from group companies (3) (5)

 

107,484

 

17,969

 

59,961

 

3,102

 

(188,516)

 

Due from related parties

 

 

175

 

16

 

15,387

 

 

15,578

Prepayments and other current assets

 

183

 

267

 

4,250

 

7,142

 

 

11,842

Restricted cash

 

 

 

 

4,078

 

 

4,078

Investments in subsidiaries and consolidated VIE (2)

 

36,324

 

 

 

 

(36,324)

 

Long-term investments

 

 

25,028

 

 

6,467

 

 

31,495

Due from related parties, non-current portion

 

 

19,311

 

 

 

 

19,311

Property and equipment, net

 

 

240

 

 

57,417

 

 

57,657

Right-of-use assets

 

 

 

 

27

 

 

27

Intangible assets, net

 

 

 

 

8,299

 

 

8,299

Goodwill

 

 

 

 

23,136

 

 

23,136

Amount due from group companies, non-current portion (3)

 

92,917

 

31,369

 

 

 

(124,286)

 

Other long-term prepayments and non-current assets

 

 

103

 

 

2,684

 

 

2,787

Total assets

 

309,895

 

217,703

 

84,123

 

178,123

 

(349,126)

 

440,718

Accounts payable

 

55

 

2,563

 

 

23,789

 

 

26,407

Amount due to group companies (3) (5)

 

2,546

 

800

 

38,438

 

146,732

 

(188,516)

 

Due to related parties

 

1,506

 

 

 

91

 

 

1,597

Contract liabilities and deferred income, current portion

 

 

152

 

 

36,740

 

 

36,892

Income tax payable

 

 

31

 

49

 

2,451

 

 

2,531

Accrued liabilities and other payables

 

2,141

 

4,967

 

 

42,449

 

 

49,557

Lease liabilities, current portion

 

 

 

 

18

 

 

18

Bank borrowings, current portion

 

 

 

 

2,876

 

 

2,876

Contract liabilities and deferred income, non‑current portion

 

 

 

 

845

 

 

845

Deferred tax liabilities

 

 

 

 

930

 

 

930

Bank borrowings, non-current portion

 

 

 

 

17,291

 

 

17,291

Lease liabilities, non-current portion

 

 

 

 

7

 

 

7

Deficits in subsidiaries and consolidated VIE (2)

 

 

 

125,916

 

 

(125,916)

 

Amount due to group companies, non-current portion (3)

 

 

87,917

 

5,000

 

31,369

 

(124,286)

 

Total liabilities

 

6,248

 

96,430

 

169,403

 

305,588

 

438,718

 

138,951

Total shareholders’ equity/(deficits)

 

303,647

 

121,604

 

(85,280)

 

(125,916)

 

89,592

 

303,647

Non-controlling interests

 

 

(331)

 

 

(1,549)

 

 

(1,880)

Total liabilities, non-controlling interests and shareholders’ equity

 

309,895

 

217,703

 

84,123

 

178,123

 

(349,126)

 

440,718

9

Table of Contents

As of December 31, 2020

    

Xunlei

    

Other

    

    

VIE and VIE's

    

    

Consolidated

Limited

subsidiaries

WFOE

subsidiaries

Elimination

Group

USD'000

USD'000

USD'000

USD'000

USD'000

USD'000

Cash and cash equivalents

 

57,585

 

42,520

 

22,859

 

14,284

 

 

137,248

Short-term investments

 

47,525

 

70,296

 

 

 

 

117,821

Accounts receivable, net

 

 

 

 

22,983

 

 

22,983

Inventories

 

 

 

 

1,726

 

 

1,726

Amount due from group companies (3) (5)

 

3,323

 

43,932

 

54,925

 

15,168

 

(117,348)

 

Due from related parties

 

 

 

15

 

10,955

 

 

10,970

Prepayments and other current assets

 

860

 

 

628

 

10,046

 

 

11,534

Restricted cash

 

 

 

 

1,541

 

 

1,541

Investments in subsidiaries and consolidated VIE (2)

 

20,064

 

 

 

 

(20,064)

 

Long-term investments

 

 

21,028

 

 

5,706

 

 

26,734

Property and equipment, net

 

 

192

 

1

 

50,532

 

 

50,725

Right-of-use assets

 

 

39

 

 

1,915

 

 

1,954

Intangible assets, net

 

 

 

 

8,857

 

 

8,857

Goodwill

 

 

 

 

22,607

 

 

22,607

Amount due from group companies, non-current portion (3)

 

175,720

 

7,663

 

 

 

(183,383)

 

Other long-term prepayments and non-current assets

 

 

 

 

905

 

 

905

Total assets

 

305,077

 

185,670

 

78,428

 

167,225

 

(320,795)

 

415,605

Accounts payable

 

55

 

1

 

 

20,588

 

 

20,644

Amount due to group companies (3) (5)

 

10,750

 

358

 

 

106,240

 

(117,348)

 

Due to related parties

 

 

5,334

 

 

55

 

 

5,389

Contract liabilities and deferred income, current portion

 

1

 

 

 

34,040

 

 

34,041

Income tax payable

 

 

53

 

 

2,500

 

 

2,553

Accrued liabilities and other payables

 

2,118

 

3,069

 

141

 

33,361

 

 

38,689

Lease liabilities, current portion

 

 

49

 

 

1,912

 

 

1,961

Contract liabilities and deferred income, non‑current portion

 

 

 

 

920

 

 

920

Deferred tax liabilities

 

 

 

 

1,085

 

 

1,085

Bank borrowings, non-current portion

 

 

 

 

19,924

 

 

19,924

Lease liabilities, non-current portion

 

 

 

 

27

 

 

27

Deficits in subsidiaries and consolidated VIE (2)

 

 

 

128,816

 

 

(128,816)

 

Amount due to group companies, non-current portion (3)

 

 

64,129

 

42,444

 

76,810

 

(183,383)

 

Total liabilities

 

12,924

 

72,993

 

171,401

 

297,462

 

(429,547)

 

125,233

Total shareholders’ equity/(deficits)

 

292,153

 

113,037

 

(92,973)

 

(128,816)

 

108,752

 

292,153

Non-controlling interests

 

 

(360)

 

 

(1,421)

 

 

(1,781)

Total liabilities, non-controlling interests and shareholders’ equity

 

305,077

 

185,670

 

78,428

 

167,225

 

(320,795)

 

415,605

10

Table of Contents

As of December 31, 2019

    

Xunlei

    

Other

    

    

VIE and VIE's

    

    

Consolidated

Limited

subsidiaries

WFOE

subsidiaries

Elimination

Group

USD'000

USD'000

USD'000

USD'000

USD'000

USD'000

Cash and cash equivalents

 

7,683

 

114,168

 

5,767

 

34,847

 

 

162,465

Short-term investments

 

102,555

 

 

 

292

 

 

102,847

Accounts receivable, net

 

 

1

 

 

27,532

 

 

27,533

Inventories

 

 

207

 

 

5,330

 

 

5,537

Amount due from group companies (3) (5)

 

6,066

 

17,225

 

70,150

 

8,927

 

(102,368)

 

Due from related parties

 

 

 

14

 

1,644

 

 

1,658

Prepayments and other current assets

 

274

 

145

 

1,150

 

14,974

 

 

16,543

Restricted cash

 

 

 

 

2,983

 

 

2,983

Investments in subsidiaries and consolidated VIE (2)

 

20,835

 

 

 

 

(20,835)

 

Long-term investments

 

 

21,028

 

 

5,337

 

 

26,365

Deferred tax assets

 

 

 

133

 

985

 

 

1,118

Property and equipment, net

 

 

353

 

 

38,417

 

 

38,770

Right-of-use assets

 

 

128

 

 

8,619

 

 

8,747

Intangible assets, net

 

 

 

 

9,426

 

 

9,426

Goodwill

 

 

 

 

20,382

 

 

20,382

Amount due from group companies, non-current portion (3)

 

171,175

 

22,935

 

 

 

(194,110)

 

Other long-term prepayments and non-current assets

 

 

 

 

313

 

 

313

Total assets

 

308,588

 

176,190

 

77,214

 

180,008

 

(317,313)

 

424,687

Accounts payable

 

55

 

293

 

 

23,865

 

 

24,213

Amount due to group companies (3) (5)

 

9,737

 

7,064

 

3,369

 

82,198

 

(102,368)

 

Due to related parties

 

 

5,000

 

 

2

 

 

5,002

Contract liabilities and deferred income, current portion

 

1

 

 

 

31,988

 

 

31,989

Income tax payable

 

 

114

 

 

2,436

 

 

2,550

Accrued liabilities and other payables

 

1,918

 

2,347

 

73

 

38,502

 

 

42,840

Lease liabilities, current portion

 

 

72

 

 

4,621

 

 

4,693

Contract liabilities and deferred income, non‑current portion

 

 

 

 

1,223

 

 

1,223

Deferred tax liabilities

 

 

 

 

1,179

 

 

1,179

Bank borrowings, non-current portion

 

 

 

 

11,324

 

 

11,324

Lease liabilities, non-current portion

 

 

59

 

 

4,073

 

 

4,132

Deficits in subsidiaries and consolidated VIE (2)

 

 

 

112,153

 

 

(112,153)

 

Amount due to group companies, non-current portion (3)

 

 

62,406

 

39,701

 

92,003

 

(194,110)

 

Total liabilities

 

11,711

 

77,355

 

155,296

 

293,414

 

(408,631)

 

129,145

Total shareholders’ equity/(deficits)

 

296,877

 

98,917

 

(78,082)

 

(112,153)

 

91,318

 

296,877

Non-controlling interests

 

 

(82)

 

 

(1,253)

 

 

(1,335)

Total liabilities, non-controlling interests and shareholders’ equity

 

308,588

 

176,190

 

77,214

 

180,008

 

(317,313)

 

424,687

11

Table of Contents

Selected Condensed Consdidated Statements of Cash Flows Data

Year ended December 31, 2021

    

Xunlei

    

Other

    

    

VIE and VIE's

    

    

Consolidated

Limited

subsidiaries

WFOE

subsidiaries

Elimination

Group

Operating activities with external parties

 

(5,732)

 

8,654

 

(8,387)

 

24,945

 

 

19,480

Net cash (used in)/generated from operating activities

 

(5,732)

 

8,654

 

(8,387)

 

24,945

 

 

19,480

Loans to group companies (4)

 

(26,391)

 

(23,527)

 

 

 

49,918

 

Repayment of loans from group companies (4)

 

 

19,123

 

5,302

 

 

(24,425)

 

Other investing activities with external parties

 

6,553

 

(19,755)

 

 

(19,417)

 

 

(32,619)

Net cash (used in)/generated from investing activities

 

(19,838)

 

(24,159)

 

5,302

 

(19,417)

 

25,493

 

(32,619)

Loans from group companies (4)

 

 

26,391

 

 

23,527

 

(49,918)

 

Repayment of loans to group companies (4)

 

 

 

 

(24,425)

 

24,425

 

Other financing activities with external parties

 

 

 

 

(223)

 

 

(223)

Net cash generated from/(used in) financing activities

 

 

26,391

 

 

(1,121)

 

(25,493)

 

(223)

Net (decrease)/increase in cash and cash equivalents

 

(25,570)

 

10,886

 

(3,085)

 

4,407

 

 

(13,362)

Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash at beginning of year

 

57,585

 

42,520

 

22,859

 

15,825

 

 

138,789

Effect of exchange rates on cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash

 

 

1,396

 

122

 

491

 

 

2,009

Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash at end of year

 

32,015

 

54,802

 

19,896

 

20,723

 

 

127,436

Year ended December 31, 2020

    

Xunlei

    

Other

    

    

VIE and VIE's

    

    

Consolidated

Limited

subsidiaries

WFOE

subsidiaries

Elimination

Group

Operating activities with external parties

 

649

 

(8,112)

 

6,975

 

(13,423)

 

 

(13,911)

Net cash generated from/(used in) operating activities

 

649

 

(8,112)

 

6,975

 

(13,423)

 

 

(13,911)

Loans to group companies (4)

 

(1,802)

 

(2,463)

 

 

(6,329)

 

10,594

 

Repayment of loans from group companies (4)

 

500

 

 

4,300

 

502

 

(5,302)

 

Other investing activities with external parties

 

55,030

 

(66,616)

 

(10)

 

(9,160)

 

 

(20,756)

Net cash generated from/(used in) investing activities

 

53,728

 

(69,079)

 

4,290

 

(14,987)

 

5,292

 

(20,756)

Loans from group companies (4)

 

 

1,723

 

6,329

 

2,542

 

(10,594)

 

Repayment of loans to group companies (4)

 

 

(500)

 

(502)

 

(4,300)

 

5,302

 

Other financing activities with external parties

 

(4,475)

 

 

 

7,154

 

 

2,679

Net cash (used in)/generated from financing activities

 

(4,475)

 

1,223

 

5,827

 

5,396

 

(5,292)

 

2,679

Net increase/(decrease) in cash and cash equivalents

 

49,902

 

(75,968)

 

17,092

 

(23,014)

 

 

(31,988)

Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash at beginning of year

 

7,683

 

114,168

 

5,767

 

37,830

 

 

165,448

Effect of exchange rates on cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash

 

 

4,320

 

 

1,009

 

 

5,329

Cash, cash equivalents and restricted cash at end of year

 

57,585

 

42,520

 

22,859

 

15,825

 

 

138,789

12

Table of Contents

Year ended December 31, 2019

    

Xunlei

    

Other

    

    

VIE and VIE's

    

    

Consolidated

Limited

subsidiaries

WFOE

subsidiaries

Elimination

Group

Purchases of goods and services from group companies